226 Nano composites Synthesis of TiO2/Fe and Camparision Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-CP by Using Pure TiO2 and TiO2/Fe under UV Irradiation

*Corresponding Author: fatemeh_hasani99@yahoo.com


Synthesis and characterization of Fe-TiO2composite as a photocatalyst in the photodegradation of methylene blue on visible light irradiation in a closed reactor have been carried out. Synthesis was conducted by the sol-gel method at room temperature using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and iron (III) chloride as a precursor.

In this research, Fe-doped TiO2nanoparticles with various Fe concentrations (0, 1, 5 and 10 wt %) were prepared by a sol–gel method. Then, nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and FTIR. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) have been carried out at pH 3 with the percentage degradation of 90% under UV irradiation for 4 hours.


Keyword: Titanium dioxide; central composite design; response surface methodology; 4-chlorophenol; photocatalytic degradation




[1]Gaya, U. I., Abdullah, A. H., Zainal, Z., and Hussein, M. Z., 2009, “Photocatalytic Treatment of 4-Chlorophenol in Aqueous ZnO Suspensions: Intermediates, Influence of Dosage and Inorganic Anions,” J. Hazard. Mater., 168(1), pp. 57–63.

[2]Guo, J.-F., Ma, B., Yin, A., Fan, K., and Dai, W.-L., 2012, “Highly Stable and Efficient Ag/AgCl@TiO2 Photocatalyst: Preparation, Characterization, and Application in the Treatment of Aqueous Hazardous Pollutants,” J. Hazard. Mater., 211–212, pp. 77–82.

[3]Adav, S. S., Chen, M.-Y., Lee, D.-J., and Ren, N.-Q., 2007, “Degradation of Phenol by Acinetobacter Strain Isolated from Aerobic Granules,” Chemosphere, 67(8), pp. 1566–1572.

[4]Dixit, A., Mungray, A. K., and Chakraborty, M., 2010, “Photochemical Oxidation of Phenol and Chlorophenol by UV/H2O2/TiO2 Process: A Kinetic Study,” Int. J. Chem. Eng. Appl., 1(3), p. 247.

[5]Kansal, S. K., Singh, M., and Sud, D., 2007, “Parametric Optimization of Photocatalytic Degradation of Catechol in Aqueous Solutions by Response Surface Methodology.”

[6]Liu, L., Chen, F., Yang, F., Chen, Y., and Crittenden, J., 2012, “Photocatalytic Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol Using Nanoscale Fe/TiO2,” Chem. Eng. J., 181–182, pp. 189–195.

[7]Saien, J., and Shahrezaei, F., 2012, “Organic Pollutants Removal from Petroleum Refinery Wastewater with Nanotitania Photocatalyst and UV Light Emission,” Int. J. Photoenergy, 2012.

[8]Munter, R., 2001, “Advanced Oxidation Processes–current Status and Prospects,” Proc. Est. Acad. Sci. Chem, 50(2), pp. 59–80.

[9]Etacheri, V., Di Valentin, C., Schneider, J., Bahnemann, D., and Pillai, S. C., 2015, “Visible-Light Activation of TiO 2 Photocatalysts: Advances in Theory and Experiments,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. C Photochem. Rev., 25, pp. 1–29.

[10]Yuan, R., Zhou, B., Hua, D., and Shi, C., 2013, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Humic Acids Using Al and Fe Co-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes under UV/ozonation for Drinking Water Purification,” J. Hazard. Mater., 262, pp. 527–538.

[11]Srinivasan, S. S., Wade, J., Stefanakos, E. K., and Goswami, Y., 2006, “Synergistic Effects of Sulfation and Co-Doping on the Visible Light Photocatalysis of TiO2,” J. Alloys Compd., 424(1–2), pp. 322–326.

[12]Bashiri, R., Mohamed, N. M., Kait, C. F., Sufian, S., and Hanaei, H., 2016, “Effect of Preparation Parameters on Optical Properties of Cu and Ni Doped TiO 2 Photocatalyst,” Procedia Eng., 148, pp. 151–157.

[13]Chen, W.-F., Koshy, P., and Sorrell, C. C., 2015, “Effect of Intervalence Charge Transfer on Photocatalytic Performance of Cobalt- and Vanadium-Codoped TiO2 Thin Films,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40(46), pp. 16215–16229.

[14]Anwar, D. I., and Mulyadi, D., 2015, “Synthesis of Fe-TiO2 Composite as a Photocatalyst for Degradation of Methylene Blue,” Procedia Chem., 17, pp. 49–54.

[15]Matsuzawa, S., Maneerat, C., Hayata, Y., Hirakawa, T., Negishi, N., and Sano, T., 2008, “Immobilization of TiO 2 Nanoparticles on Polymeric Substrates by Using Electrostatic Interaction in the Aqueous Phase,” Appl. Catal. B Environ., 83(1), pp. 39–45.

[16]Reszczyńska, J., Grzyb, T., Sobczak, J. W., Lisowski, W., Gazda, M., Ohtani, B., and Zaleska, A., 2014, “Lanthanide Co-Doped TiO2: The Effect of Metal Type and Amount on Surface Properties and Photocatalytic Activity,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 307, pp. 333–345.

[17]Lee, M. S., Hong, S.-S., and Mohseni, M., 2005, “Synthesis of Photocatalytic Nanosized TiO 2–Ag Particles with Sol–gel Method Using Reduction Agent,” J. Mol. Catal. A Chem., 242(1), pp. 135–140.

[18]Šijaković-Vujičić, N., Gotić, M., Musić, S., Ivanda, M., and Popović, S., 2004, “Synthesis and Microstructural Properties of Fe-TiO2 Nanocrystalline Particles Obtained by a Modified Sol-Gel Method,” J. sol-gel Sci. Technol., 30(1), pp. 5–19.

[19]Thomas, J., Radhika, S., and Yoon, M., 2016, “Nd3+-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles Incorporated with Heteropoly Phosphotungstic Acid: A Novel Solar Photocatalyst for Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol in Water,” J. Mol. Catal. A Chem., 411, pp. 146–156.

[20]Lu, N., Lu, Y., Liu, F., Zhao, K., Yuan, X., Zhao, Y., Li, Y., Qin, H., and Zhu, J., 2013, “H 3 PW 12 O 40/TiO 2 Catalyst-Induced Photodegradation of Bisphenol A (BPA): Kinetics, Toxicity and Degradation Pathways,” Chemosphere, 91(9), pp. 1266–1272.

[21]Praveen, P., Viruthagiri, G., Mugundan, S., and Shanmugam, N., 2014, “Sol–gel Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Manganese Doped TiO 2 nanoparticles–A New NLO Active Material,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 120, pp. 548–557.

[22]Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Feng, X., Zhou, J., and Zhou, S., 2016, “Preparation of a La/N Co-Doped TiO 2 Film Electrode with Visible Light Response and Its Photoelectrocatalytic Activity on a Ni Substrate,” Dye. Pigment., 125, pp. 375–383.