corresponding Author: email@example.com
A study was conducted to determine the impact of the distance from the municipal solid waste dumpsite, at which E-waste was disposed, on heavy metals [Iron (Fe), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)] contamination of plants and soils. To achieve this objective a systematic sampling approach was used to collect composite soil samples from plots located at distances of (0,100,200,300 and 400 m) from Al-Suli municipal waste dumpsite. A soil auger was used for soil sampling at each plot at the depth of 0-25 cm. In addition, the aerial parts of three selected plants species (Rhazyastricta Dence, Artemisia Monosperman Delile and Panicum Turgidum Forssk) naturally growing in Al- Suli area were sampled from within each sampling site. The concentration of heavy metals in both soil and plant samples were determined. The results showed that the soil was polluted with the studied heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cd and Zn). The highest concentration of heavy metals in the soil was within the dumpsite and then decreased as the distance increased. The obtained data indicated very high pollution with both Cd and Fe in the dumpsite (zero meter), while their concentration in the second site (100 m away from the dumpsite) was lower. Cd concentration in the dumpsite soil was 75.6-± 0.49 mg kg – ᶦ, a level that affects human health. Cd concentration at a distance of 100 m was 57.1-± 0.37b mg kg – ᶦ, which means that the soil is significantly contaminated with Cd. The soil within the dumpsite and at a distance of 100 m was also contaminated with both Pb and Zn to levels that could be considered harmful to human health (47.9 ± 0.24 and 38.3 ±0.20 as well as 0.79 ± 0.09 and 0.75 ±0.06 mg kg – ᶦ for Pb and Zn, respectively).
The results of the present study showed a decrease in the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Fe, Zn) in plants shoot tissues with distance from the dumpsite. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and plant aerial parts within and near to the dumpsite (between 0 and 100m) recorded higher heavy metals concentrations. The concentration of heavy metals in plants shoots within the dumpsite was in the order: Fe>Pb>Cd>Zn, while in all other tested sites was in the order Fe>Cd>Pb>Zn.
Plant growth in the soil adjacent to the E-waste dumping area soil should be encouraged to contribute to heavy metals uptake and reduce environmental pollution. Plants could also be used as indicators of environmental pollution with heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, and Cd). In conclusion, the obtained data of this study indicated the urgent need for more efforts in order to reduce heavy metals concentrations in municipal waste dumpsite at Al-Suli. In addition, there is an urgent need for determining heavy metals concentrations in the blood of the community members living in the neighborhood of Al-Suli dumpsite.
Keywords: E-waste, Dumpsite, Municipal solid waste, Heavy metals, Saudi Arabia
- Adama, M., Esena, R., Fosu-Mensah, B. and Yirenya-Tawiah, D. (2016). Heavy metal contamination of soils around a hospital waste incinerator bottom ash dumps site. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 59:23–40.
- Adelekan, B. A. and Abegunde, K. D. (2011). Heavy metals contamination of soil and groundwater at automobile mechanic villages in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences.6 (5):1045–1058.
- Allen, A. (2001) Containment landfills: the myth of sustainability. Eng. Geol. 60:3–19.
- Al-Farraj, A.S. and Al-Wabel, M.I. (2009). Heavy metals accumulation by ochradenusbaccatus plant grown on mining area at MahadAD’Dahab, Saudi Arabia. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. Ecosyst. Sustainable Dev. 7: 459-468
- Amoah, P., Drechsel, P., Henseler, M., Abaidoo, R.C. (2007). Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets and associated consumer risk groups. J Water Health. 5(3):455–466.
- Amusan, A.A., Ige, D.V. andOlawale, R. (2005). Characteristics of soils and crops’ uptake of metals in municipal waste dump sites in Nigeria. J. Hum. Ecol. 17: 167-171.
- Banar, M., Ozkan, A. and Vardar, C.I. (2007). Characterization of an urban landfill soil by using physicochemical analysis and solid phase micro extraction (SPME)—GC/MS. Environ. Monit. Assess.127:337–351.
- Bi, X.Y., Feng, X.B., Yang, Y.G., Li, X.D., Shin, G.P.Y., Li, F.L., Qiu, G.L., Li, G.H., Liu, T.Z. and Fu, Z.Y. (2009). Allocation and source attribution of lead and cadmium in maize (Zea mays L.) impacted by smelting emissions. Environ. Pollut.157:834–839.
- Biswas, A.K., Kumar, S., Babu, S.S., Bhattacharyya, J.K. and Chakrabarti, T. (2010). Studies on environmental quality in and around municipal solid waste dumpsite. Resour. Conserv. Recycl.55: 129-134.
- Djingova, R. and Kuleff, I. (2000). Instrumental techniques for trace analysis. Trace Metal Environment.4: 137–185.
- Gidarakos E, Havas G. and Ntzamilis, P. (2005). Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete. Waste Manage (Oxford). 26(6):668–679.
- Helmenstine, A.M. (2014). Heavy metals definition. About.com. http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/g/Heavy-Metal-Definition.htm. Accessed on May 8, 2019.
- Hunt, J. R. (2003). Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.78 (3): 6335–6395.
- Jackson, M.L. (1958). Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Inc., Engle Wood Cliffs, New Jersey, U.S.A.
- Kanmani, S. and Gandhimathi, R. (2013). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil due to leachate migration from an open dumping site. Applied Water Sci. 3: 193-205.
- Khan, S. A., Khan, L., Hussain, I., Marwat, K. B. and Akhtar, N. (2008). Profile of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants. Journal of Weed Sciences and Research.14(1-2):101–110.
- Knezevic, M., Stankovic, D., Krstic, B., Nikolic, M. S. and Vilotic, D. (2009). Concentrations of heavy metals in soil and leaves of plant species Paulownia elongate and Paulownia fortunei. African Journal of Biotechnology.8(20):5422–5429.
- Kumar, S., Singh, J. and Garg, M. (2012). AAS Estimation of heavy metals and trace elements in Indian herbal cosmetics preparations. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences. 2(3): 46–51.
- Kulikowska, D. and Klimiuk, E. (2008). The effect of landfill age on municipal leachate composition. Bioresour Technol. 99:5981–5985.
- Lenntech, B.V. (2014). Water treatment solutions. Delft, the Netherlands. http://www.lenntech.com. Accessed on May 8, 2019.
- Li, H. Z., Bai, J. M., Li, Y. T., Cheng, H. F., Zeng, E. Y. and You, J. (2011). Short-range transport of contaminants released from e-waste recycling site in South China. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 13(4): 836–843.
- Luo, C.L., Shen, Z.G. Lou, L.Q. and Li, X.D. (2006). EDDS and EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction of metals from artificially contaminated soil and residual effects of chelate compounds. Environ. Pollut.144:862–871.
- Luo, C.L., Shen, Z.G. and Li, X.D. (2005). Enhanced phytoextraction of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd with EDTA and EDDS. Chemosphere.59:1–11.
- Misra, R. (1968). Ecology Work Book. Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi.
- Okareh, O.T., Dada, A.O. and Morakinyo, O.M. (2015). Effects of Heavy Metal Contaminants from Waste dumpsite on incidence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Feacalis. G.J.B.B. 4 (2): 203-208.
- Ukpong, E. C., Antigha, R. E and Moses, E.O. (2013). Assessment of heavy metals content in soils and plants around waste dumpsites in Uyo Metropolis, AkwaIbom State. International Journal of Engineering and Science. 2(7):75-86.
- Rahman, A., Ullah, H., Khan, R. U. and Ahmad, I. (2013). Population based study of heavy metals in medicinal plant (Capparis decidua). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 5(1):108–113.
- Rizo, O.D., Merlo, M.H., Castillo, F.E. and Lopez, J.A.O. (2012) Assessment of metal pollution in soils from a former Havana (Cuba) solid waste open dump. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 88:182–186.
- Skye, J. (2006). Causes of environmental degradation. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Causes_of_Environmental_Degradation.Accessed on May 5, 2019.
- Tahar, K. and Keltoum, B. (2011). Effects of heavy metals pollution in soil and plant in the industrial area, West Algeria. J. Korean Chem. Soc. 55: 1018-1023.
- Thorpe, A.and Harrison, R. M. (2008). Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: A review. Science of the Total Environment, 400(1–3): 270–282.
- Yuan C., Zhang, H.C., Mckenna, G. and Korzeniewski, C. (2007). Experimental studies on cryogenic recycling on printed circuit board. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech. 34: 657.
- Walkley, A. and Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjaref method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chronic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37(1): 29–38.
- WHO (World Health Organization)? (1998). Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials, Geneva, Switzerland.
- WHO/FAO. (2001). Codex aliment Arius commission. Food additives and contaminants. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program, ALINORM 10/12A.Retrieved on 19 June 2019 from www.transpaktrading.com/static/pdf/research/achemistry/introTofertilizers.pdf
- Zhang, W. H., Wu, Y. X. and Simonnot, M. O. (2012). Soil contamination due to e-waste disposal and recycling activities: A review with special focus on China. Pedosphere. 21(4):434–455.
- Zhu, D., Asnani, P.U., Zurbrugg, C., Anapolsky, S. and Mani, S. (2008). Improving Solid Waste Management in India: A Sourcebook for Policy Makers and Practitioners. World Bank Publication, Washington, DC., USA.