*Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The performance of advance photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) strongly depends on photocatalyst dosage, initial concentration and time of reaction. The aim of this study was modeling and investigating the degradation of it in water using TiO2/Fe as a nanocatalyst.
Photocatalyst was optimized by varying and operating parameters and using a response surface methodology to evaluate the experimental data. Based on the results obtained, it was found that a maximum of 91% of 4-CP was successfully degraded under optimal conditions (2.29 g catalyst dosage, 38.5 mg/L of 4-CP and time 236.85). All the experimental data showed good agreement with the predicted results obtained from statistical analysis.
Keyword: Titanium dioxide; central composite design; response surface methodology; 4-chlorophenol; photocatalytic degradation
Guo, J.-F., Ma, B., Yin, A., Fan, K., and Dai, W.-L., 2012, “Highly Stable and Efficient Ag/AgCl@TiO2 Photocatalyst: Preparation, Characterization, and Application in the Treatment of Aqueous Hazardous Pollutants,” J. Hazard. Mater., 211–212, pp. 77–82.
Venkatachalam, N., Palanichamy, M., Arabindoo, B., and Murugesan, V., 2007, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol by Zr4+ Doped Nano TiO2,” J. Mol. Catal. A Chem., 266(1–2), pp. 158–165.
Lu, N., Lu, Y., Liu, F., Zhao, K., Yuan, X., Zhao, Y., Li, Y., Qin, H., and Zhu, J., 2013, “H 3 PW 12 O 40/TiO 2 Catalyst-Induced Photodegradation of Bisphenol A (BPA): Kinetics, Toxicity and Degradation Pathways,” Chemosphere, 91(9), pp. 1266–1272.
Liu, L., Chen, F., Yang, F., Chen, Y., and Crittenden, J., 2012, “Photocatalytic Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol Using Nanoscale Fe/TiO2,” Chem. Eng. J., 181–182, pp. 189–195.
Yuan, R., Zhou, B., Hua, D., and Shi, C., 2013, “Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Humic Acids Using Al and Fe Co-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes under UV/ozonation for Drinking Water Purification,” J. Hazard. Mater., 262, pp. 527–538.
Srinivasan, S. S., Wade, J., Stefanakos, E. K., and Goswami, Y., 2006, “Synergistic Effects of Sulfation and Co-Doping on the Visible Light Photocatalysis of TiO2,” J. Alloys Compd., 424(1–2), pp. 322–326.
Chen, W.-F., Koshy, P., and Sorrell, C. C., 2015, “Effect of Intervalence Charge Transfer on Photocatalytic Performance of Cobalt- and Vanadium-Codoped TiO2 Thin Films,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40(46), pp. 16215–16229.
Lacerda, A. M., 2015, “Modified TiO2 Photocatalysts for the Degradation of Organic Pollutants and H2 Generation via Solar Energy Conversion.”
Feilizadeh, M., Mul, G., and Vossoughi, M., 2015, “E. Coli Inactivation by Visible Light Irradiation Using a Fe–Cd/TiO2 Photocatalyst: Statistical Analysis and Optimization of Operating Parameters,” Appl. Catal. B Environ., 168–169, pp. 441–447.
Hossini, H., Safari, M., Rezaee, R., Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R., Giahi, O., and Zandsalimi, Y., 2015, “Application of Experimental Design Approach for Optimization of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Humic Substances in Aqueous Solution Using Immobilized ZnO Nanoparticles,” J. Adv. Environ. Heal. Res., 3(3).
Kansal, S. K., Singh, M., and Sud, D., 2007, “Parametric Optimization of Photocatalytic Degradation of Catechol in Aqueous Solutions by Response Surface Methodology.”
Abdollahi, Y., Zakaria, A., Said, S. B. M., Sabri, M. F. B. M., Sairi, N. A., Rezayi, M., Abouzari-lotf, E., Dorraj, M., and Islam, A., 2016, “Modeling of Photodegradation Process to Remove the Higher Concentration of Environmental Pollution,” Desalin. Water Treat., 57(1), pp. 191–201.
Baş, D., and Boyacı, İ. H., 2007, “Modeling and Optimization I: Usability of Response Surface Methodology,” J. Food Eng., 78(3), pp. 836–845.
Demirel, M., and Kayan, B., 2012, “Application of Response Surface Methodology and Central Composite Design for the Optimization of Textile Dye Degradation by Wet Air Oxidation,” Int. J. Ind. Chem., 3(1), p. 24.
Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, A., and Moeinirad, S., 2011, “Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Furfural Using NiS-Clinoptilolite Zeolite,” Desalination, 273(2), pp. 248–257.
Zhang, Y., Wan, J., and Ke, Y., 2010, “A Novel Approach of Preparing TiO 2 Films at Low Temperature and Its Application in Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange,” J. Hazard. Mater., 177(1), pp. 750–754.
Song, C., Chen, P., Wang, C., and Zhu, L., 2012, “Photodegradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid by Synthesized TiO 2–MWCNT Composites under 365nm UV Irradiation,” Chemosphere, 86(8), pp. 853–859.
Chong, M. N., Jin, B., Chow, C. W. K., and Saint, C., 2010, “Recent Developments in Photocatalytic Water Treatment Technology: A Review,” Water Res., 44(10), pp. 2997–3027.
Benhebal, H., Chaib, M., Salmon, T., Geens, J., Leonard, A., Lambert, S. D., Crine, M., and Heinrichs, B., 2013, “Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol and Benzoic Acid Using Zinc Oxide Powders Prepared by the Sol–gel Process,” Alexandria Eng. J., 52(3), pp. 517–523.
Palaniandy, P., Aziz, H. B. A., and Feroz, S., 2016, “WITHDRAWN: Comparison and Performance of Petroleum Wastewater Treatment Using Photocatalytic TiO2, Photo Fenton, TiO2/Fenton and TiO2/Fenton/ZnO Processes.”