Proxy Electrochemical Process for Acid Red 18 Dye Removal


The goal of this research is to investigate of acid red18(AR18) dye from urban drinking water by batch proxy electrochemical reactor with using zinc-copper electrode (distance 2 cm) and hydrogen peroxide. The variables include pH(4-10), concentration of AR18(100-300mg/L), reaction time(15-45min), concentration of hydrogen peroxide(0.5-1.5 mg/L), and current density(3-9 mA/cm2). In electrochemical reactor, the removal percentage for AR18 concentration(100mg/L) in current density 9 mA/cm2 and electrolysis time 15min in pHs 4, 7, and 10 are obtained 66%, 61%, and 56%, respectively. In proxy electrochemical reactor, the removal percentage for AR18 concentration(100 mg/L), in optimum conditions, in hydrogen peroxide concentration 1.5mg/L, current density9 mA/cm2, optimum pH 4, electrolysis time 15min in AR18concentrations 100, 200, and 300 are obtained 100%, 98%, and 88%, respectively. The findings indicate that AR18removal efficiency is increased with increasing current density, electrolysis time, and decreasing AR18concentration. Proxy electrochemical method has appropriate efficiency for the AR18 removal from water.

Keywords: Acid red 18, Dye, Hydrogen peroxide, Proxy electrochemical, Urban drinking water.

PDF Format of Article


  • A. Maleki, A.H. Mahvi, R. Ebrahimi, and Y. Zandsalimi, 2010. Photochemical and sonochemical processes efficiency for degradation of dyes in aqueous solution. Journal of Chemical Engineering. 27, 79-82.
  • W. Somasiri, X.F. Li, W.Q. Ruan, and C. Jian, 2008. Evaluation of the efficacy of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor in removal of colour and reduction of COD in real textile wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 99, 3692-3699.
  • N. Daneshvar, and D. Salari, 2003. Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water. Journal Photochemical Photobiological, 157, 111-116.
  • S.K.A. Solmaz, A. Birgul, G.E. Ustun, and T. Yonar, 2006. Colour and COD removal from textile effluent by coagulation and advanced oxidation processes. Coloration Technology, 122, 102-109.
  • A. Maleki, A.H. Mahvi, and B. Shahmoradi, 2011. Hydroxyl radical-based processes for decolourization of direct blue 71. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 2011, 23:
  • R. Rezaie, A. Maleki, M. Shirzad Siboni, M. Rahimi, and M. Mohammadi, 2011. Comparison of efficiency of photochemical and sonochemical processes combined with hydrogen peroxide in removal of direct blue 71 (D71) from aqueous solution. Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, 16, 38-47.
  • D. Arsene, C. Petronela Musteret, C. Catrinescu, P. Apopei, G. Brajoveanu, and C. Teodosiu, 2011. Combined oxidation and ultrafilteration processes for the removal of priority organic pollutants from wastewaters. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management, 10, 1967-1976.
  • W. Ben, Z. Qiang, X. Pan, and M. Chen, 2009. Removal of veterinary antibiotics from sequencing batch reactor (SBR) pretreated swine wastewater by Fenton’s reagent. WaterRresearch, 43 (17), 4392-4402.
  • W. Wunderlicha, T. Oekermannb, L. Miaoc, N.T. Hued, S. Tanemurac, and M. Tanemura, 2004. Electronic properties of nano-porous TiO2– and ZnO-thin films-comparison of simulations and experiments. Journal. of Ceramic Processing Research, 5 (4), 343-354.
  • K. Barbusinski, 2009. Fenton reaction-controversy concerning the chemistry. Ecology Chemical Engineering, 42, 347-358.
  • M. Visa, and A. Duta, 2013. Methyl-orange and cadmium simultaneous removal using fly ash and photo-Fenton systems. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 244-245, 773-779.
  • G. Moussavi, R. Khosravi, and M. Farzadkia, 2011. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated groundwater using an electrocoagulation process: Batch and continuous experiments. Desalination, 1-9.
  • HAPA, AWWA, WEF. (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 22st ed. Washington DC: APHA.
  • M. Alizadeh, A.H. Mahvi, H. Jafari Mansoorian, and R. Ardani, 2013. The survey of electrocoagulation process for removal dye reactive orange 16 from aqueous solutions using sacrificial iron electrodes. Iranian Journal of Health, Safety and Environment, 1 (1), 1-8.
  • P. Priya, V. Ramamurthi, and P. Anand, 2011. Degradation studies of tannery effluents using electro flotation technique. Chemical Engineering and Process Technology, 2 (1), 1-4.
  • H. Lee, and M. Shoda, 2008. Removal of COD and color from livestock wastewater by the fenton metod. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153, 1314-1319.
  • J. Basiri Parsa, M. Golmirzaei, and M. Abbasi, 2014. Degradation of azo dye C.I. Acid Red 18 in aqueous solution by ozone-electrolysis process. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20, 689–694.
  • B. Merzouk, M. Yakoubi, I. Zongo, J.P. Leclerc, G. Paternotte, and S. Pontvianne, 2011. Effect of modification of textile wastewater composition on electrocoagulation efficiency. Desalination, 275 (1), 181-186.
  • A. Dalvand, M. Gholami, A. Joneidi, and M. Mohammad, 2011. Dye removal, energy consumption and operating cost of electrocoagulation of textile wastewater as a clean process. Cleaning Soil, Air, Water, 39 (7), 665-672.
  • S. Farhadi, and B. Aminzadeh, 2012. Comparison of COD removal from pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation,photoelectrocoagulation,peroxi-electrocoagulation and peroxi-photoelectrocoagulation processes. Journal of hazardous materials, 35, 219-220.
  • H. Dehghani, A. Jonidi jafari, M. Farzadkia, and M. Gholami, 2012. Investigation of the efficiency of Fenton’s advanced oxidation process in sulfadiazine antibiotic removal from aqueous solutions. Arak Medical University Journal, 15 (66), 19-29.
  • N. Mohammadlou, M.S. Rasoulifard, M. Vahedpour and M.R. Eskandarian, 2014. The kinetic and thermodynamic study for decolorization of Congo red from aqueous solution using electrocoagulation process. Journal Applied Chemical Research, 8 (4), 123-142.
  • Chandra S.V., D. Patil and S.K. Kumar: Parametric optimization of dye removal by electrocoagulation using Taguchi methodology. Int. J. Chem. Reactor Engin., 9 (1), 1-9 (2011).